Intelligence gathering is the first line of defense against terrorism. Through use of intelligence, law enforcement and military operations can be designed to disrupt terrorist organizations and preempt their operations. Prior to September 11, 2001, most state and local law enforcement agencies viewed intelligence gathering on global terrorist groups as the purview of the federal government. Except for large cities like Los Angeles and New York, if state or local agencies gathered intelligence it tended to be on domestic subversive groups. We have since realized that some terrorist organizations have a global reach, and that state and local law enforcement officials must broaden their view.